Ostarine, sometimes referred to as Mk 2866 or enobosarm, is a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM). SARMs are a class of androgen receptor ions bound to metal atoms to form metal complexes. GTx Inc is a pharmaceutical biotechnology company that was founded in 1997. They developed Ostarine as an orally administrated supplement intended for both the prevention and the treatment of muscular atrophy from inactivity or medical conditions.
Before GTx Inc assumed control of its development, Ostarine’s original creator was the pharmaceutical company Merck & Co. Ostarine has been the subject of numerous clinical studies through the years to determine its efficiency and potential side effects. The supplement has the legal status of an Investigational New Drug (IND). This gives GTx the legal right to ship it across state lines solely for the purpose clinical examination.
The drug’s IND status will remain until the FDA either approves or rejects its marketing application. Should the marketing application be approved, a Phase 1 clinical trial will commence to examine it further.
As clinical investigations of Ostarine are still underway, there is room for speculation regarding its complete chemical nature. The exact chemical structure of Mk 2866 has never been publicly shared by its developers. However, it’s chemical structure can be deduced through multiple patent database records.
What sets Ostarine and other aryl propionamides of its kind apart from other SARM derivatives, is their rather advanced nature. This is compared to most of the other therapeutic substances that the FDA examines. Of all of the different kinds of substances currently classified as INDs, it has one of the most complex chemical compositions. Ostarine’s inherent structural complexity could contribute to the amount of time required for its investigation to reach the point of either approval or rejection by the FDA.
Table of Contents
- 1 How Ostarine Works
- 2 Ostarine Benefits
- 3 Ostarine Uses
- 4 Safety with Ostarine Mk 2866
- 5 Correct Dosage with Ostarine
- 6 Cycling with Ostarine
- 7 FAQ
- 7.1 If Ostarine’s effects are really so beneficial, why hasn’t it been legalized yet?
- 7.2 What concrete evidence of Ostarine’s actual effects are there?
- 7.3 Are Ostarine’s effects only useful for those who want bigger muscles and strength development without going as far steroids?
- 7.4 Is the increased muscle mass from Ostarine’s effects identical quality to gains of equal size from androgenic drugs?
- 7.5 Because it’s designed to be so similar to anabolic steroids, is there a chance that Mk 2866 could cause higher estrogen in men?
- 7.6 Can the physical development created by this drug realistically be maintained long term?
- 8 Summary
How Ostarine Works
Ostarine was made to function in a manner comparable to anabolic steroids. The drug works by selectively triggering a number of androgen receptors for increased muscle building through protein synthesis. Upon administrating Mk 2866, the body’s androgen receptors form bonds with the newly arrived SARMs. These newly created receptor-modulator bonds have a direct effect on the body’s gene expression. Through this modification, protein synthesis can occur at a much higher level than what is possible under normal circumstances.
Protein synthesis from Mk 2866 use is intended to closely emulate the effects of more commonly known androgenic drugs. However, it doesn’t act in an identical fashion. The increased anabolic activity from Mk 2866 spares non-skeletal muscle tissue and exclusively focuses its effects on the androgen receptors for which it is intended.
Compared to Ostarine, anabolic steroids are far less selective in the way that they impact the body. While Ostarine has no effect on non-skeletal muscle tissues, anabolic steroids can, and often do, activate a large amount of androgenic activity in all the tissues with which they come into contact.
Anabolic sex hormone agonists in various steroid formulations can have dramatically different degrees of effects in users. This can happen for many reasons. This includes everything from the possible inclusion of synthetic androgens to the unique physiology of the user.
Clinical investigators still haven’t completed their ongoing examinations of Mk 2866. It makes it challenging to make definitive statements regarding its use. There has not been enough publicly disseminated information about it to make any conclusive statements regarding its absolute benefits or potential long-term consequences. However, based on the widely known intention for SARMs to serve as selective anabolic steroid emulators, it’s reasonable to assume that Ostarine’s ideal benefits are in the same circle as those commonly sought through anabolic steroid use.
Its primary benefits are increases in stamina, maximal strength, explosive power, and speedy recovery. Apart from those, another one of the key benefits that many users seek it out for actually isn’t a tangible physical benefit at all. What motivates many to use it isn’t just the positive effects that it has, but also the undesirable effects that it doesn’t have.
Compared to the more intense impact of anabolic steroids, the conservatively selective action of it could indicate a lower chance of suffering from the negative side effects that anabolic steroids have. Mk 2866 is a non-steroidal supplement. This means that it does not produce many of the side effects that steroids do. One such side effect includes enlargement of the prostate gland.
Athletes and fitness enthusiasts desired benefit from Ostarine is the physical enhancement that is comparable to anabolic steroids. Many of these users are interested in its potential contribution to athletic performance and physical capabilities. In addition to that, there are also those who seek it out as a way to counteract age-related atrophy.
Since this SARM’s mechanism of action is more selective than that of steroids, its potential to induce greater muscle development may not be as dramatic. The exclusively androgen receptor-targeting nature of the supplement guarantees that the entirety of gains from its use will most likely be made up of lean muscle mass.
Compared to androgenic drugs, Ostarine trades off the greater skeletal muscle growth threshold for a higher proportion of lean muscle-based growth. Users won’t be able to reach the same extreme degree of gross muscle growth made possible with anabolic steroids. Also, they won’t have to deal with unwanted development in any tissues apart from the skeletal muscle that they intended on improving.
Individuals with an intolerance for steroids might be drawn to SARMs like Mk 2866 in the hopes of being able to slow down or reverse their physical atrophy. This is especially true if they are not able to benefit from testosterone supplementation. Some particularly dire illnesses can cause accelerated muscle wasting as an auxiliary effect. Clinical Mk 2866 administration could give these patients a chance to preserve their muscular health with a non-steroidal agent.
Should the clinical trials evaluating Mk 2866 eventually lead to its approval, some have suggested that the SARM’s abilities may merit its use to prevent and treat some the most serious illnesses in the world.
The public information about Ostarine and it’s chemical composition have been scarce. This hasn’t stopped many professional athletes from around the world from using it as a performance enhancing drug for years. The World Anti-Doping Agency officially classified it as a prohibited performance-enhancing drug (PED) in 2008. Although it is not as dramatic as anabolic steroids, it still showed great gains. These gains were in physical stamina and performance quality. This was significant enough to have it banned from organized sporting events.
The relatively small amount of concrete information regarding the comprehensive chemical structure of Mk 2866 hasn’t kept it from gaining a very large and diverse base of users from different countries. Notable athletes penalized for the use of Ostarine as a PED include professional cyclist Nikita Novikov, steeplechase runner Chaltu Beji, UFC fighter Tim Means, triathlete Beth Gerdes, and more.
The similarity between Ostarine’s anabolic activity and steroid-induced anabolic activity extends to the diverse range of goals of SARM usage. Ostarine’s high level of utility for different training plans is apparent when considering the wide range of professional sports that athletes participated in who were found guilty of doping with it.
As a simple activator of anabolic activity, the supplement can potentially be employed as a supportive agent for any kind of target muscle development. Hypertrophy, maximal strength, and explosive power development demand different skeletal muscle exertion to result in the anabolic activity that improves them. Whether the user intends on bulking up with lean mass or improving their lifting capacity, this SARM raises the ceiling on the upper limits of development in any category of strength training.
In addition to users who desire higher levels of muscle mass, some users might also employ the supplement as a tool to reduce their body fat. The increased anabolic activity that it activates does not necessarily burn extra fat simply by supplementation. The connection between anabolic action and fat loss occurs when the anabolism preserves muscle mass during periods of restricted energy intake.
Safety with Ostarine Mk 2866
Being a non-steroidal agent, Mk 2866 does not have the potential to cause the same negative effects that are recognized as necessary risks of administering the androgenic drugs that it was made to emulate. The lack of testosterone in SARM’s composition eliminates the risk of it severely damaging the body’s ability to naturally produce testosterone without supplementation. Physical benefits from Ostarine do not include the price of medically necessary testosterone therapy that anabolic steroid users require.
Although it’s scientifically impossible for it’s effects to carry the same potential for androgenic drug-related risk factors, it’s still too early for anyone in the scientific community to declare that it is entirely risk-free. Even though the drug’s selective nature makes it difficult for users to suffer an overdose without extraordinary effort on their part, Ostarine’s selective nature does not completely eliminate the potential for irregular effects to result from overuse.
If taken in excess, the drug may suppress the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Testes-Axis (HPTA). The body’s proper level of internal testosterone production depends on a fully functional and uninhibited HPTA to govern it. Ostarine’s effects may not rely on excessive testosterone production, but if activated excessively, its effects could inhibit the HPTA’s ability to work freely. However, this mild suppression effect is not close to being on the same scale as chronic use of androgenic drugs.
The most credible statement that anyone can make about Ostarine’s safety is that its use doesn’t necessitate taking on the same risks that anabolic steroids do. This is because of the either unknown or unannounced nature of its complex chemical composition. The true picture of this substance’s safety level will be revealed with more time and observation of any possible manifestation of long-term side effects in those who use it regularly.
Correct Dosage with Ostarine
While a SARM has a 24-hour half-life, Ostarine’s recommended dose depends on personal factors like the user’s gender and their desired effects. The maximum recommended dosage to take for any purpose is approximately 12.5 mg for women and 25 mg for adult men. However, it isn’t necessary to reach the maximum dosage for marginal effects to manifest.
For those who are more interested in aesthetic gains than significant strength gains, approximately half of the maximum recommended dosage for their gender (12.5 mg for men and five to six mg for women) can be enough to make very modest but still quantifiable improvements to the physique.
At doses less than half of the maximum recommended amounts, Ostarine’s anabolic activity can still be helpful for its contribution to tendon and bone health. The smallest possible administrations of the drug may not be quite as effective for performance enhancement but can still serve a viable therapeutic role.
Cycling with Ostarine
Ostarine’s selective action and anti-catabolic role make it popular both as an independently administrated performance-enhancing agent and as a supplement to use concurrently with other anabolic activity-boosting drugs. Bodybuilders find the supplement to be a viable substitute to anabolic steroids. As a closely-modeled but safer substitute, the SARM allows them to achieve levels of physical enhancement that are still satisfying despite not being to the same degree as androgenic drug administration.
The low risk of negative symptoms at reasonable doses of Ostarine makes it a highly flexible and welcome inclusion in just about any cycle stack. It can perform equally well as both the main stack contributor and a supportive agent. Daily doses of the SARM for approximately four weeks should not result in any HPTA interference, and conveniently, that window of time is a perfect fit for the average PCT phase’s duration.
Many bodybuilders who regularly supplement with anabolic steroids such as Dianabol also use Mk 2866 as a key element of their PCT stack for both its anabolic and anti-catabolic effects. While the body cools down on its temporary recess from intense testosterone supplementation, Ostarine can make a valuable contribution to both the qualities of the user’s recovery and overall muscle preservation.
In addition to contributing to comprehensive muscle recovery during PCT phases, the supplement is also sometimes coupled with other androgen receptor modulators and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists for muscle-sparing fat loss campaigns.
The considerable boost in endurance that the supplement can provide during extended periods of cardiovascular activity can make it easier for users to sustain their elevated metabolic rate for more fat burning with less fatigue. The value of the supplement’s contribution to endurance-demanding cardiovascular activities will increase with the overall duration of those activities.
The supplement is steroid-free. This means most users who take it without any other drugs generally don’t have any need to go through a PCT phase. The necessity of PCT will depend on just how extensive the user’s intake truly is and the unique way that their body reacts to heightened anabolic activity.
Mk 2866 users who prefer to err on the side of caution may be want to consider going through a short PCT phase with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) after a particularly long Ostarine cycle.
A cycle of approximately two to three months is long enough to merit a brief PCT phase. This generally is no longer than three weeks maximum. The short PCT phase can counteract any potential suppression of the HPTA.
If Ostarine’s effects are really so beneficial, why hasn’t it been legalized yet?
There have many positive results that have been demonstrated as achievable through Ostarine’s inclusion in training regimens. There is concern that its fundamental nature is still not as thoroughly understood as it needs to be to confidently classify it as a substance that can be legally prescribed for clinical purposes.
Perhaps the most fitting way to describe Ostarine’s current status as a drug in the FDA’s IND investigation limbo is “so far, so good.” There haven’t been any reports of fatal consequences from miscalculation of Ostarine’s potency or dosage mistakes.
The lack of the worst-case scenarios, however, is matched by the continued absence of concrete answers to the question of what exactly composes this SARM on the most basic level. Because clinical investigators haven’t clarified exactly what constitutes the enigmatic enobosarm at its core, the chance that its undiscovered components could be the unknown catalyst for currently unobserved or dormant long-term effects cannot be ruled out yet.
What concrete evidence of Ostarine’s actual effects are there?
Despite the fact that the supplement is far from being fully understood, researchers have conducted extensive clinical trials to gain a better idea of its full efficacy. To date, GTx has carried out multiple efficacy tests and additional clinical trials to assess Ostarine’s abilities in well over 700 subjects.
Clinical experiments that closely examined the differences between test groups of Ostarine-using patients and placebo groups have repeatedly demonstrated a superior development of total lean body mass in the former. That group also showed an overall significantly higher level of functional muscular strength as well. This indicated that the SARM contributes both to hypertrophy and maximal strength development.
Are Ostarine’s effects only useful for those who want bigger muscles and strength development without going as far steroids?
Ostarine’s anabolic ability has certainly made it popular in circles of power lifters and bodybuilders. It’s benefits are not exclusively limited to strength and power. In addition to the potential to create greater physical performance capacity, it can also be used to boost recovery. Muscular development for training requires skeletal muscle to break down before it can be built back up into more resilient forms. Through the SARM’s anabolic activity, the recovery process is accelerated with higher levels of protein synthesis originating from the SARM-bonded androgen receptors.
Is the increased muscle mass from Ostarine’s effects identical quality to gains of equal size from androgenic drugs?
Ostarine’s anabolic activity can indeed contribute to hypertrophic gains that are comparable to that of androgenic drug effects on a more subdued scale, but it would be too far to say that the effects are legitimately identical.
No matter how faithfully it can imitate androgenic effects, Ostarine is a SARM and not an anabolic steroid. It has no androgenic effect on its own. The lack of androgens in muscle mass development created by Ostarine effects will prevent that muscle mass from being as tough and deeply defined as steroid-endowed muscle mass of the same volume.
It is only natural that a drug developed to emulate anabolic steroids may not have the exact capability to match the effects of actual steroidal supplementation. However, many users find that the SARM is capable of facilitating more than enough for the kind of improvement that they seek.
The drug’s therapeutic, anti-catabolic and anabolic properties should collectively provide great value for anyone aside from the most competitive bodybuilders and power lifters. This supplement can be ideal for those who enjoy physical improvement and are not professionally required to remain within the top global percentile of physical strength and muscular definition. This SARM can be a much more sensible choice of anabolic supplement than riskier androgenic drug use.
Because it’s designed to be so similar to anabolic steroids, is there a chance that Mk 2866 could cause higher estrogen in men?
Popular anabolic steroids can become the source of excessive estrogen because they are susceptible to natural aromatization in the body. To create cholesterol and fats, the body’s widely distributed aromatase enzyme initiates a process that converts testosterone into estrogen.
Even when it does not originate from within the body, testosterone from anabolic steroid administration is not immune from the aromatase enzyme’s job. Once aromatized, steroids in the body are irreversibly converted to androgenic and estrogenic tissue whether the owner of the body likes it or not. “Low-aromatase” steroid blends are more accurately described as “low-effort, false advertising” steroid blends.
Naturally, the inevitable testosterone aromatization process is a critical stage of any anabolic steroid cycle that all users of androgenic drugs dread.
Luckily for those using Ostarine as a substitute for steroids, SARMS are impossible for aromatase to convert. Because they are completely spared the effects of aromatization, all SARMs in the body can dedicate the full extent of their activities to engaging with androgen receptors.
Can the physical development created by this drug realistically be maintained long term?
Ostarine was developed to closely shadow the behavior of anabolic steroids. The question of whether Ostarine’s effects take the same high degree of maintenance as steroid effects is an understandable question to ask.
A big part of the notoriety that anabolic steroids have gained in popular culture has always been the highly-publicized cases of users who suffered dramatic physical consequences after discontinuing steroid use. However, it’s important to understand the root cause of this post-steroid physical deterioration.
Androgenic drug-enhanced hypertrophy is undeniably intense at its peak. It’s astronomic intensity can be considered both its greatest advantage and also its most significant drawback. Anabolic steroids can temporarily open the door to levels of physical enhancement that were inconceivable before the first use. The extreme magnitude of their effects is beyond the realm of what the body has the physiological capability to maintain without supplementation.
In theory, the most pragmatic and disciplined anabolic steroid users can certainly ease their transition from regular cycling to a steroid-free lifestyle. However, there is not a way to fully compensate for the loss of androgenic action from steroids without any subsequent steroidal supplementation.
Mindful ex-steroid users with excellent commitment to continued training can still preserve a respectable physique after they’ve ended their relationship with the drug. On the other hand, careless users can be reduced to such a poor physical state that it almost appears as though their bodies have internally collapsed from the anguish of withdrawal.
The large overlap between androgenic drug users and individuals with poor self-regulation skills creates a high likelihood that many who supplement with anabolic steroids will suffer the steep consequences of dependency on them. However, this risk is not shared with those who use the more selective Mk 2866 for their training regimen.
Increased anabolic activity activated by Ostarine may closely resemble anabolic steroids on the surface level. However, this is largely where the similarities end. SARM-stimulated muscle growth is only steroid-like and not a literal reproduction of the processes that occur for androgenic drug action.
Not only is the SARM anabolic, but it also possesses helpful anti-catabolic properties. The SARM’s anti-catabolic ability to ward off muscular atrophy forms a powerful combo with its anabolic ability to cause almost entirely lean muscle-based mass.
Ostarine’s mainly muscle-localized mass growth is both well-defended against atrophy by its anti-catabolic properties and entirely non-steroidal. This means that its risk level for potential post-cycle consequences is on the polar opposite end of the risk factor spectrum to anabolic steroid use.
Even though there isn’t as much risk of muscular gains from Mk 2866 use suddenly “deflating” with the same startling immediacy that they can in cases of reckless steroid abuse, it still takes at least a marginal investment of effort to ensure that the gains can actually be maintained. While the lingering anti-catabolic action of the drug may help the user preserve their total muscle mass for some time following ceased administration, it won’t be enough to counteract the effect of refraining from all forms of serious training.
Muscle mass gained from strength training without any supplementation requires a continued commitment to the same level of training to maintain. Ostarine’s long-term influence on the user’s physical development will depend on their activity level. If the user continues training consistently at the same intensity that they did while under Ostarine’s effects, it should be possible for them to maintain the enhanced muscle mass for as long as they are naturally capable.
Ostarine is a somewhat enigmatic but exceedingly popular resource for those interested in an alternative to anabolic steroids. It is highly comparable but far less risky for lean muscle mass enhancement, recovery, and cutting body fat. While SARMs like Mk 2866 are chemically incapable of producing results that are perfectly identical to the effects of the anabolic steroids that they are designed to emulate, Ostarine’s perfectly focused androgen receptor-binding behavior makes it one of the most powerful and versatile agents for strength training optimization available.
Apart from mild HPTA suppression at doses that far exceed the maximum recommendations, the SARM’s respectable anabolic activity output forms a winning trio. This is with its anti-catabolic properties and a nearly nonexistent level of risk for causing serious side effects.
Even without being perfectly equal to anabolic steroids, its potency is significant enough to have warranted is classification as a prohibited performance enhancing substance by the World Anti-Doping Agency.
Despite being deemed an IND by the FDA and illicit PED by WADA, the ratio of proven benefits to confirmed consequences of Ostarine’s effects is almost entirely stacked in favor of the benefits. Nevertheless, the ambiguity surrounding Ostarine’s complex chemical structure is still too great for investigators to disregard. For the time being, the question of whether Ostarine will be approved for prescribed administration and have its potential as a clinical asset tested is uncertain.
We know what it can and cannot do based on our current understanding. What is of greater concern to clinical investigators is the matter of what we don’t know that it can do based on what we don’t currently understand about it. So far, it has show to be a very powerful sarm with minimal risk. Until that changes, this SARM will likely keep its current status as a discreetly circulated, but widely-adored team player in many cycle stacks.