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Cardarine GW 501516 has been shown to help build muscle and improve your cardio. But, what does it actually do? There is no real short answer. To best sum it up, Cardarine binds to and then activates the peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR).
The PPAR are ligand-activated transcription factors of a nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. GW-501516 specifically binds to PPAR delta, which is expressed in tissues found throughout the body.
In particular, it is expressed in adipose tissue, a loose connective tissue located in bone marrow, beneath the skin, in breast tissue, and around the organs. It is also found in the brain and the skin.
When PPAR delta is activated, it can affect numerous systems found throughout the body, including the heart. It was for this purpose that, in 1992, Cardarine was created by GlaxoSmithKline and their partner, Ligand Pharmaceuticals.
Cardarine has been found to initiate the enzyme PGC-1a, which leads to expression of genes that are mostly related to energy expenditure.
Cardarine has a few highly significant effects on the body that tend to be most advantageous to athletes, exercise enthusiasts, and bodybuilders. Performance-based athletes and exercise gurus might find that Cardarine’s endurance-enhancing properties give them a boost when it comes to putting in longer and more strenuous training sessions.
Other performance-enhancers, such as the anabolic steroid Trenbolone, tend to create respiration issues during intense cardio exercise. However, Cardarine use seems to curb those negative effects and keeps athletes’ cardio performances in check. This is precisely why fitness fanatics are hailing Cardarine as one of the most helpful chemicals for athletes.
Currently, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibit the use of Cardarine (GW-501516) among competing athletes even though it is not a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM).
This prohibition is due to the fact that Cardarine is a metabolic moderator that activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). It is; however, commonly used among those in the fitness community due to its numerous performance benefits.
Before the commencement of the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, China, concerns were raised over GW being used as an ergogenic performance-enhancing drug. This would give an unfair advantage to some athletes competing in the Olympics. The argument was made that GW was not up to regulation standards. It could also be harmful based on the circulation of a study that claimed GW caused cancer in lab rats and mice. The study was later found to have some misleading elements.
As highlighted above, the use of Cardarine (including in conjunction with anabolic steroids and other performance-enhancing supplements) holds many well-researched benefits. Of course, Cardarine (GW-501516) has benefits that can be reaped by more than just the athletic crowd.
Let’s elaborate more on the benefits of this powerful performance-enhancing chemical. Here are eight of the most well-known and highly researched benefits of taking Cardarine.
In one minute, the human body pumps five liters of blood through the heart. Our bloodstream has to carry this freshly oxidated blood. However, over the basic human lifespan, oxidative damage can occur to any or all of the internal organs and tissues. Oxidative stress is a major culprit in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress seems to trigger responses on the cellular level. These responses cause alterations in genetic expression, cellular hypertrophy, and cell death. These issues are all commonly seen by doctors in patients who present with heart failure. This often starts with the damage that is done to the coronary arteries. Damage progressively worsens as restricted blood flow continues to deprive cells of the oxygen they require.
GW is able to step in and prevent some of the inflammatory plaque build-ups (otherwise known as atherosclerosis) that cause issues in the arteries. GW-501516 is ideal for doing this since it is densely packed with nitric acid. Lab studies have also discovered that, when tested on lab mice, Cardarine is effective at lowering the prevalence of inflammation. It also heals lesions associated with atherosclerosis.
Additionally, it has been found that GW-501516 might decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease. This is due to GW’s properties that reduce triglyceride levels. GW also increase HDL cholesterol, also known as “the good cholesterol” since it removes LDL or “bad” cholesterol and maintains the inner walls of blood vessels. GW also increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, which stimulates the formation of blood vessels.
Oxidative stress can target the brain. When the body is not able to successfully detoxify itself of free radicals, fend off bacteria in the immune system, or properly form energy with glucose, oxidative stress takes its toll. Oxidative stress manifests in physical and mental ways. In fact, emotional stress and oxidative stress have been theoretically linked by multiple researchers.
Common symptoms of oxidative stress on the brain include “brain fog”, memory loss, fatigue, disorientation, and confusion. Those with autoimmune disorders are particularly prone to these unpleasant symptoms. However, there is some evidence to suggest that Cardarine is able to protect the blood vessels in the brain from oxidative stress. It also appears to help reduce the risk of blood vessel dysfunction in the brain’s blood vessels.
Also, when GW-501516 activates PPAR delta, there seems to be an increase in the development of new nerve cells.
Lab tests conducted on mice have shown that Cardarine can help to reduce the amount of inflammation in the cells of the kidneys. Cardarine achieves this by decreasing the expression of the key chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2). MCP-1 has been linked to kidney disease (or nephropathy), atherogenesis, and cardiovascular disease. It might also have benefits for those suffering from diabetes.
Another important benefit of Cardarine is that it works at boosting the immune system. When free radicals cause oxidative stress to the body’s organs and tissues, the immune system will continuously struggle to function in an optimal fashion. This can lead to a wide array of health problems, including
• chronic inflammation
• heightened susceptibility to different ailments (including bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases)
Cardarine has been shown to successfully reduce the amount of inflammation within the body. Studies have shown that GW-501516 works as an anti-inflammatory agent in multiple cells found throughout the body, including
• Immune cells (including red blood cells, T cells, platelets, Natural Killer cells, and white blood cells)
• Intestinal epithelium (a layering of cells that compose the lining of the larger and smaller intestines within the gastrointestinal tract that acts as a barrier against harmful invading substances and absorber of necessary ones)
• Cardiomyocytes (cardiac muscle cells which are found in the atria and the ventricles, otherwise known as the entrance and exit sites of blood flow to and from the heart)
• Keratinocytes (the most abundant type of cell found in the epidermis which is capable of producing keratin, the protein responsible for helping to protect epithelial cells from oxidative stress and damage)
• Macrophages (a type of white blood cell that acts as a scavenger cell by consuming and digesting foreign substances, cellular waste, cancer cells, and microbes through a process named phagocytosis)
• Myoblasts (a muscle fiber cell)
• Hepatocytes (cells found in the liver’s parenchymal tissue that plays active roles in changing carbohydrates; modifying, detoxifying, and expelling harmful substances; storing protein; synthesizing protein, and forming and secreting bile)
• Endothelial cells (cells that line all of the body’s blood vessels and work to moderate exchanges between tissues and the bloodstream)
One of the main reasons fitness buffs love using Cardarine is that it prevents weight gain. This is due to the fact that GW-501516 activates PPAR, which is known to increase the amount of energy that can be used by the muscles. PPAR also seems to have the ability to break down fatty acids in the body. Cardarine has been shown to reduce the metabolic abnormalities found in male patients presenting as pre-diabetics and with obesity issues. These metabolic abnormalities are altered due to Cardarine’s ability to stimulate fatty acid oxidation in the body.
During this process, the increase in glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle tissue causes fat to burn. This prompts the body’s metabolism to burn fat for energy usage as opposed to carbohydrates or muscle. Cardarine is also to keep blood sugar levels within a healthy range while doing this. This also gives a renewed sense of energy to the body. Athletes do not feel totally burned out following rigorous exercise or fitness routines.
Additionally, when tested on laboratory mice, GW-501516 increased muscle fiber and produced elevated insulin sensitivity. It also decreased the amount of glucose created within the liver.
Liver damage is something that has many known causes but seemingly fewer known preventatives. Liver damage can result from
• Cancer (which can either begin in or spread to the liver)
• Ingesting certain herbal supplements (such as ephedra, kava, pennyroyal, and skullcap)
• Autoimmune diseases (including autoimmune hepatitis. Those with “leaky gut” often experience autoimmune-related liver ailments.)
• Metabolic disease (including Wilson’s disease)
• Ingesting prescription medications (including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticonvulsants, and antibiotics)
• Overusing acetaminophen (which is the most common form of acute liver failure in the United States)
• Hepatitis and other viruses (such as herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus)
• Vascular diseases in the liver (which can include Budd-Chiari syndrome)
• Various toxins (including Amanita phalloides, a wild mushroom that is often mistaken for an edible species but is actually poisonous)
GW-501516 has been shown to help prevent insulin resistance since it inhibits an interleukin known as Interleukin-6 (IL-6). IL-6 is secreted by macrophages and T cells and is both an anti-inflammatory myokine and pro-inflammatory cytokine. Additionally, IL-6 is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. It is known to stimulate inflammatory and autoimmune responses in diseases such as depression, diabetes, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and prostate cancer.
Muscle growth and stamina boosts are a few more of the main reasons why fitness buffs choose Cardarine. Cardarine is often used in addition to (or “stacked”) with actual SARMs. Cardarine is known to be the most effective when it is stacked with Andarine (S-4) and Ostarine (MK-2866). In fact, this is the triple stack method that many weightlifters and cardio enthusiasts recommend for achieving optimal benefits.
Since GW-501516 activates PPAR delta, it increases the number of muscle fibers present in the body. Also, since it generates energy in the muscles, Cardarine helps keep athletes performing longer. With more power to keep you going through a workout, you have the potential to build and maintain more muscle throughout your body. With the added benefit of Cardarine keeping your cardio in check, this chemical is every bodybuilder’s dream.
This might not be the benefit it is most commonly used for. However, Cardarine might actually be able to assist in the healing of wounds and skin diseases. Since GW-501516 acts on PPAR delta receptors, Cardarine could potentially help with the wound healing process. In fibroblasts, PPAR beta-delta plays an unexpectedly significant role in establishing and maintaining an optimal and functional balance between the epidermis (the outermost layers of skin) and the dermis (layers located beneath the epidermis). This could prove beneficial for those with psoriasis or other difficult-to-treat skin disorders.
There are several notable potential risks and side-effects that come along with taking Cardarine. A significant amount of these studies have been conducted on laboratory mice and rats as opposed to human subjects. Still, the risks should be noted by humans who take Cardarine (GW-501516) or who are thinking about ingesting it.
Some of the most well-researched potential side-effects of Cardarine are
• Cardarine might cause fibrosis in those with liver disease
• It might increase the amount of cellular death in liver cells
• It has been known to cause cancer in laboratory rats, although not enough studies have been done to prove this
• Long-term exposure to GW-501516 might lead to complications in placental and fetal development
This powerful chemical impacts almost every area of the human body. However, its effects have not yet been scientifically studied in human test subjects. That is why it is important for those who are taking or who want to try GW-501516 to proceed with caution. Before making the decision to use GW, it is important that individuals consult with their doctors and/or trainers to gain their insight and recommendations for usage.
One study that was conducted on laboratory rats that showed potential risks for cancer have left a few things out. First, the study does not make clear the conditions under which the rats were administered GW-501516. What is known is that these rats were given an extremely elevated amount of the substance (10 mg per kg of their body weight, to be more precise). A maximum recommended dosage for a 200-pound man is 20 mg per day. This is not based on body weight, meaning that the equivalent of what was done in the lab test is 900 mg of GW per day for an adult man. Essentially, the testing methods are arguably flawed. This makes it difficult for anyone to know what effect long-term GW use has on the body.
GW-501516 is not recognized as a safe drug due to the cancer link found in research. This means that GW is not readily available on pharmacy and grocery store shelves. Of course, this is because it is not FDA-approved. However, there are vendors online that sell GW, including Proven Peptides. If you opt to purchase your GW online, you need to exercise caution when selecting a vendor.
Proven Peptides is honestly your best option. They conduct thorough third-party testing on each batch of their products. They also have a history of being transparent regarding their practices, procedures, and product purity. Proven Peptides offers speedy next-day shipping, customer service representatives, and a full money-back guarantee if you are not satisfied with your purchase.
Answer: There has been a study linking GW use to the cancerous growths found in the laboratory mice who were given the substance. However, it should be noted that this study has some highly misleading elements to it. The mice were given an excessively high dosage (10 mg per every kg of their body weight) for an extended period of time. Basically, this dosage would equate 900 mg per day in the average adult man. The recommended maximum dosage for the average adult male is 20 mg per day.
Of course, you should proceed with caution when taking any type of supplement. The fact of the matter is that we simply do not know enough about the long-term effects of using GW. It is impossible to say with certainty that GW will or will not cause harmful and lasting side-effects.
As of right now, most users seem to agree that it is safe to use. Users have not reportedly experienced a significant amount of negative side-effects from taking GW. Also, since it is usually stacked with other SARMs (especially with Andarine and Ostarine), any negative side-effects that result from a combined use might not be directly caused by GW itself.
Answer: There are no real guidelines regarding how to split up a GW dosage. Most fitness experts who use GW agree that there is generally no real reason to cut a 20 mg daily dosage in half. This is because GW is known to have a long half-life (which ranges from about 20 to 24 hours).
When you start taking GW, you should get yourself into the habit of taking your dosage in full at the same time each day. You can give or take a little bit of time.
If you decide to split the dosage, you should try taking the first half after your first meal of the day. Take the second half about 30 to 45 minutes before you begin your workout routine. If you are taking a day off to rest, take your second portion of the split dosage in the evening, preferably with your dinner. It is recommended that you take GW with a meal.
Answer: You can stack your daily dose of GW with one or two other SARMs to reap the maximum benefits of a high-intensity workout. Many bodybuilders and fitness fanatics prefer to stack GW with Andarine and Ostarine.
Andarine (also known as S-40503 or S-4 for short) is a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) that binds to androgen receptors in your body’s adipose tissues. This triggers fat oxidation. Andarine can help your body refrain from going catabolic when you enter into a lower diet. It is somewhat more suppressive than Ostarine and will not aromatize into estrogen. Therefore, you will not need to take an inhibitor when you are on cycle.
Ostarine is very commonly stacked with Andarine since they tend to work pretty harmoniously together to build lean muscle throughout the body. Ostarine (also referred to as Enobosarm or MK-2866) is an anabolic SARM that helps improve strength, endurance, joint healing abilities, and increased muscle gain. It shows both muscular and bone selective anabolic activity and is used to intensify protein synthesis.
One reason why you should include Ostarine in your stack is that it works to reduce the amount of degeneration that happens in the muscles during recovery periods from injuries, illnesses, or even surgeries. It is also known for being free from serious side-effects. Andarine, on the other hand, is known to cause some night and light blindness since it contains the metabolite M1. Those taking Andarine should do so with caution.
If you plan on stacking GW, Andarine, and Ostarine together, you can try the following triple stacking protocol for men:
• In the morning, take 1-8 Ostarine 25 mg daily dose (which is to be taken once a day, preferably with breakfast)
• Take 1-8 Andarine 50 mg per day in split doses (take 25 mg in the morning with breakfast and the other 25 mg in the evening with dinner)
• Take 1-8 GW-501516 at either one dose of 20 mg (to be consumed in the morning with breakfast) or split into two doses of 10 mg each (one taken in the morning with breakfast and the other taken in the evening with dinner)
• 1-8 HCGenerate (a testosterone booster)
You do have the option of adding three to eight Albuterol (at 12 to 18 mg per day), Mini PCT (at nine to 12 grams per day), and/or an Unleashed/Post-cycle combination. It is best to consult your doctor and/or trainer before cultivating a stacking protocol for yourself.
Answer: The highest optimal recommended daily dosage for the average adult is 20 mg. Surprisingly, many bodybuilders have noted that they get excellent results when using a lowered dosage of just 10 mg per day. 10 mg is, in fact, the recommended starting dosage. Over time, you can build up to 15 mg to 20 mg or keep your dosage at 10 mg per day if that appears to be getting you the results you desire.
If you prefer a pre-workout boost, you can take GW half an hour to an hour prior to starting your workout routine. However, that is completely up to you.
Answer: No, it is not catabolic. Entering into a catabolic state is something many bodybuilders, athletes, and fitness enthusiasts can tell you all about. When you couple a lack of proper nutrition from a restricted diet with excessive exercise, your body can enter into a catabolic state. In a catabolic state, your adrenal glands will secrete excess amounts of the “stress” hormone cortisol since your body is trying to make up for the loss of muscle tissue and deal with the physical stress being placed on it.
Intensive training requires a sufficient amount of carbohydrates and proteins. GW reverses metabolic abnormalities that occur when your body is nutrient-deficient and under a significant amount of physical stress. This is due to how GW stimulates fat oxidation within the body. Glucose intake is increased in the skeletal muscle tissue, allowing the body to burn through its fat stores as opposed to the carbohydrates or muscle that your body requires for working out. Therefore, GW is actually anti-catabolic. It can be helpful for those undergoing extensive workout routines while following restrictive dietary plans.
Answer: Cardarine has a few known side-effects that have shown up during laboratory testing on rats and mice. It is important to keep in mind that the dosages given to the laboratory rats and mice who were found to have cancer were extremely high. Also, these doses were administered over a prolonged period of time. Since the effects of GW have not been studied in human test subjects, we have to rely on anecdotal evidence of potential side-effects in the human body.
The most notable side-effects that have been found in lab studies are cell deaths in the liver, fibrosis of the liver, cancer, and possible placental and fetal development issues. Again, these animals were given disproportionately high doses of GW at 10 mg per every kg of their body weight. For the average adult man, that would equal about 900 mg per day of GW. It goes without saying that this dosage is absolutely not recommended for anyone. Do not go far beyond the recommended 20 mg dose.
Other than the side-effects noted in lab studies on rats and mice, there are relatively no known side-effects as reported by human consumers. It does not trigger or promote androgen-based or estrogen-based side-effects. It will not suppress testosterone secretion in the body. Also, GW is effective at curbing the respiratory issues those who use Trenbolone (or Tren for short) and visual impairment issues brought on by Andarine.
Answer: Good news, guys! GW is not suppressive to natural testosterone production within the body. Therefore, you will not have to worry about undergoing Post Cycle Therapy (PCT) after doing a cycle of GW.
Answer: Yes. Even though GW is not an anabolic steroid, it will show up on a sports doping test. In 2009, GW was added to the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) list of prohibited substances due to the research circulating at the time that claimed GW is unsafe. As a result of growing concerns over GW’s potential side-effects, WADA developed a test that detects GW and other PPAR delta moderators. In the recent past, athletes have been caught using GW. Four cyclists in the 2012 Vuelta Ciclista a Costa Rica were found to have used GW. This earned three of the riders two-year suspensions and the fourth rider a 12-year suspension since it was his second doping violation. In 2014, a Russian race walker named Elena Lashmanova tested positive for GW and received a two-year suspension.
Answer: Some users report that, once they stopped taking GW, they were able to retain the cardio abilities that they had gained while they were using GW. However, they also note that, once they had stopped taking GW, their improvements were significantly slower.
Answer: If you buy online from Proven Peptides, a 2-ounce tincture will cost you $99. You can opt for a .5 ounce tincture for $39.99 or a 1-ounce tincture for $59.99. If you look elsewhere online, you will find similar prices, ranging from about $40 to $120 for a tincture of GW. Many SARMs are expensive to buy, but those that are manufactured in factories are subjected to rigorous testing for product purity.
At last, we come to our final verdict on this controversial chemical. Depending on who you ask, GW-501516 is either a wonder drug or a hazard to your health. There is not often much discussion found in between those two opposing perspectives. Those who have used GW claim that it has boosted their performance and endurance helped them with their cardio, and even given them the added bonus of a heightened sex drive. All this happened without giving them any sort of side-effects. In fact, it seems that GW is pretty effective at curbing the negative side-effects of widely-used SARMs. GW makes for a great addition or alternative.
Of course, the studies that claim GW has a negative effect on lab mice and rats are still making the rounds and influencing some people’s opinions on GW. There might be some validity to the claims that extensive GW use can cause cancer. Still, most athletes and bodybuilders are not taking it in excessive enough amounts that would lead to cancer.
To sum it all up, GW seems like one of the safer SARM-like substances that are available to purchase. With the list of benefits outweighing the list of potential side-effects, GW comes packed with advantages for those looking to build muscle or do some cutting. Many of those who take or have previously taken GW note how impressed they were with the gains they made once they started taking this chemical. If you have any more questions about Cardarine, be sure to visit our Community Forums.